A Discovery speciality
Nalidixic acid (tradenames Nevigramon, Neggram, Wintomylon and WIN 18,320) is the first of the synthetic quinolone antibiotics. In a technical sense, it is a naphthyridone, not a quinolone: its ring structure is a 1,8-naphthyridine nucleus that contains two nitrogen atoms, unlike quinoline, which has a single nitrogen atom. it is used to modulate (inhibit) bacterial DNA gyrase-dependent processes such as DNA polymerization, (ATP-dependen)t DNA supercoiling, and chromosome fragmentation.
In Microbiology, Nalidixic acid has marked antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria including Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Morganella Morganii; Proteus Mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri.
Also used in Columbia Blood Agar .It was first described in 1966 by Ellner, Stoessel, Drakeford, and Vasi who incorporated animal derived peptone, enzymatic digests of casein, and defibrinated sheep blood into one medium. It was found to be an improved form of Blood Agar, promoting both luxuriant and rapid growth, improved pigment production, typical colony morphology, and sharply defined hemolytic reactions. Ellner, et al., also described the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in Columbia Blood Agar. Columbia CNA Agar was designed to suppress the growth of most gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella , Proteus , and Pseudomonas species from mixed flora specimens, thus isolating for gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. Columbia CNA Agar with Esculin contains esculin (full strength) to differentiate group D streptococci from Streptococcus agalactiae, as S. agalactiae is not capable of esculin-hydrolysis. When esculin is hydrolyzed by organisms it forms dextrose and esculetin, which react with a compound in the media to produce a darkening or blackness around the colonies.
Biochemicals & Diagnostics
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